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Reminder: Many historical sources refer to the Greek Empire in İstanbul in the 15th century as the “Byzantine” Empire. This is because the ancient name of the city of İstanbul was Byzantium. Then, in 330 AD Roman Emperor Constantine I rebuilt the city and made it his capital. The city had a new name; “Constantinople”, that is, city of Constantine. The people of Constantinople called themselves Romans. They never said they were Byzantines. Therefore, the empire located in this city was not Byzantine Empire but it was the Roman Empire. This is why we will refer to it as such in this text.

Conquest of İstanbul is the capture the capital city of the Roman Empire by the Ottoman Empire in 29 May 1453. This was the end of the millennium-year-old Roman Empire.

Fatih Sultan Mehmet (Mehmed II) became the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire in 1451. As soon as he came to power*, he began applying pressure on İstanbul ( Constantinople). He built forts along the Marmara straits. These forts are Anadolu Hisarı and Rumeli Hisarı and they still stand today. The siege of İstanbul began on 5 April. We had an army of 80.000 men. The Romans had a smaller army: 7000 men. The Ottomans began firing at the walls of the city with huge guns. They tried to blockade the city but failed at first because there was a long chain hanging from one end ofGolden Horn (Haliç) to another. The Romans used this chain to stop Turkish ships entering the Golden Horn. But they opened it when some Christian ships arrived in İstanbul for help on 20 April. This had a negative effect on our soldiers’ morale. However, Mehmed II was quick to reciprocate. He had his ships carried** into the golden horn on greased logs over Kasımpaşa. The Romans were shocked to see Turkish ships in the golden horn in the morning of April 22.

Mehmed II asked Constantine XI to stop resisting and give the city. He said that otherwise he would not be able to stop his soldiers from looting the city. Constantine rejected this offer and the fight went on for a little more time. On 29 May, our soldiers finally flooded into the city. Now, İstanbul was a Turkish city.

Although the Pope in Rome made a plan for a counter-attack he died*** soon and the plan died with him. İstanbul became the capital of the rising Ottoman Empire. Many historians agree that conquest of İstanbul by Turks marks the end of the middle ages and a beginning of a new era in history.****

*As soon as he came to power = İktidara gelir gelmez (hemen)

**He had his ships carried =Gemilerini taşıttı (ettirgen)

***The pope made a plan X He died soon. Bu iki cümle bir çelişki halinde. Bu çelişkiyi belirtmek için “although” kullanıyoruz. (=rağmen)

****Bu cümleyi öğelerine ayıralım



1-    Why did Mehmed II build the forts Anadolu and Rumeli Hisarı?

2-    What was the chain for?

3-    Christian ships entered the golden horn on 20 May. Fatih had his ships rolled into the golden horn only two days later. Why was he so quick to reciprocate?

4-    How did the Romans feel when they see the Turkish ships in the golden horn?



1-    this, satır 10:

2-    they, satır 17:

3-    it, satır :20

4-    this, satır 21:

5-    he, satır 23:


conquest (n) =fetih
capture (n)=ele geçirme
Ankara is the capital of Turkey
Paris is the capital of France
millennium = 1000 years
pressure (n)=baskı
fail (v) to be unsuccessful (başaramamak)
I didn't study and failed
We are Muslims, Europeans are Christians, and Israilis are Jews.
reciprocate (v)=misilleme yapmak
loot (v)=yağmalamak
reject (v): If you reject someone, you say "NO"
offer n)= proposal (öneri)
counter-attack (v)= attack back
karşı saldırı, kontratak
era (n)= a period of time
zaman, devre, dönem
siege (n)= In a siege, soldiers surround a city and they try to capture it.
Turkish army
army (n) =a large group of soldiers
one of Fatih's big guns
Israil blockades Palestinians in Gaza
original chains that blocked the entrance of the Turkish ships into the Golden Horn
You can see these chains at Harbiye military museum in İstanbul
Israil blockades Palestinians in Gaza
Our soldiers are pulling a ship over greased logs
resist (v)=direnmek
Sorular / Yorumlar
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